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Glossary

A

absolute ranging

A form of ranging that indicates the starting and ending positions of a charactersequence range using two arithmetic expressions separated by a comma.

absolute value

The value of a number without reference to the positive or negative sign.

abstract class

A class that describes a contract of basic functionality that must be inherited and implemented to be used. An abstract class cannot be instantiated.

abstract method

A method that has a signature but does not have an implementation. An abstract method is, by default, a virtual method. Abstract methods can only be defined in an abstract class.

accelerator key

An accelerator key is one that becomes mapped to an applicationspecific command message when it is pressed. In UI Toolkit terms, an accelerator key is a key that is mapped to a Toolkit menu entry or an equivalent signal. Thirdparty ActiveX controls can also map keys as accelerators, which means that the keys trigger special events when pressed.

access

To locate and obtain data.

access method

A method of retrieving pieces of data (records) from a larger set of information (file).

access mode

The method (input, output, or update) by which data from a specified file or device is accessed.

accessibility

The degree to which a class or its members can be accessed. Accessibility is primarily controlled by the PUBLIC, PROTECTED, and PRIVATE access modifiers.

accessor

The get and set methods of a property.

activation

A specific instance of a routine.

activation character

A nonprinting character that affects READS input from a channel opened in terminal mode. The READS operation ends when either a standard record terminator (LF, VT, FF, ESC) or an activation character is encountered. Additional characters are defined by the ACCHR subroutine.

activation parameter

A parameter that is presented internally to a routine.

active routine

A routine that has been entered but not exited.

ActiveX

A set of technologies developed by Microsoft that provides the ability to develop active, executable objects for Windows applications and websites.

ActiveX automation

A way of integrating development tools and applications by enabling an application to make its functionality accessible to other applications or to control the exposed functionality of other applications.

ActiveX container

See container.

ActiveX control

An active, executable object that implements the ActiveX technologies and that enables you to provide interactive, multimedia effects in your application.

actual argument

An argument that is listed in a subroutine or function call.

alpha

All ASCII characters except the nonprintable characters that control
I/O devices (such as carriage return, line feed, and form feed).

alpha data

Any consecutive sequence of ASCII characters that can be treated as a unit of information.

alpha expression

An expression whose result is an alpha value.

alphabetic

The uppercase characters “A” through “Z” and the lowercase characters “a” through “z.”

alphanumeric

Both numeric and alphabetic characters.

AppDomain

A .NET class that represents an application domain, which is an isolated environment where applications are executed.

argument

A variable or routine parameter passed to another routine via a subroutine, function, or method.

arithmetic operator

An operator that performs addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division.

array

A group of fields, with each field the same defined size and data type.

assembly

A collection of all the files required to make a .NET application run. An assembly is what results when you compile your Synergy .NET source files, and it can have the extension .exe or .dll.

assignment operator

The equal sign, because it assigns one operand to another.

attribute

A way of providing descriptive or behavioral information about your code. In Synergy .NET, attributes precede the item they are decorating and are enclosed in curly brackets ({}). All attributes are classes that inherit from System.Attribute.

B

base class

See parent class.

binary operator

An operator that acts on two operands. See operator.

binding

A method of grouping multiple main routines into one executable program.

bit

The smallest unit of data that can be accessed.

bitwise operator

An operator that performs Boolean operations on the bits within integer operands.

blank

A space.

block

A 512byte unit of information that can be read or written one or more units at a time.

blocking factor

The number of blocks to be assigned to a file I/O buffer.

Boolean operator

A logical operator (OR, exclusive OR, AND, and NOT).

border

The outline of a window’s display area.

boxing

The encapsulation of a descriptor type or a value type into an object type so it can be used like an object.

bracketed array

See real array.

breakpoint

A debugger feature that interrupts program execution in debug mode and returns to the debugger prompt.

buffer

A storage area that temporarily holds data.

byte

Eight bits.

C

C Interface

A component of Synergy DBL that enables Synergy programs to access C language routines and vice versa.

cache

Preprocessed data of limited lifetime to provide quicker access.

cascaded IF statement

A series of IFTHENELSE statements that have another IFTHENELSE statement following the ELSE keyword.

casting function

A function that enables data to be accessed as any valid data type, regardless of the actual data type with which it was declared.

certificate

An electronic ID card that establishes credentials or confirms identity when doing business or other transactions on the Web. You must have a digital certificate from a certificate authority to send encrypted messages.

certificate authority (CA)

A company that digitally creates and issues certificates. Examples are VeriSign and Thawte.

chain

To pass control to another main routine. Chaining is performed by the STOP statement.

channel

A conduit for data transmission between a file or device and your program.

child class

See derived class.

child process

A subprocess that is created and executed by the parent (current) process. Once the child process is completed, it returns control to the parent process.

cipher

Any method of encrypting text.

class

A named set of related data and functionality that works on that data.

class member

A general term for any item that can be declared within a class declaration, such as a method, a field, a property, another nested class, and so forth.

class structure

A structure that is defined inside a class.

closed routine

A selfcontained routine that cannot be run independently from a main calling routine.

CLR

Common language runtime, the runtime environment for .NET Framework.

CLS structure

A structure defined with the CLS modifier, which identifies it as a .NET value type structure.

collection

An ordered group of objects, which are referred to as the collection’s elements.

comment

A sequence of characters in your code that clarifies what your program is doing and is ignored by the compiler. A Synergy DBL comment begins with a semicolon (;).

common data

Data that is shared between routines but that doesn’t have to be passed as an argument.

compat level

A numbering system for ISAM updates that begins with the ISAM revision number, followed by a period and another digit that is incremented by 1 each time new ISAM features are added. Compat levels enable you to change your file structure without requiring an entire ISAM revision change.

compilable text

Any characters in your code that the compiler doesn’t ignore.

compilation control directive

A type of compiler directive that instructs the compiler. It can precede or follow any logical line, and it applies to the remainder of the source file. See also structure control directive.

compilation unit

A collection of source files compiled together on one command line to produce a single executable or DLL.

compiletime expression

An expression that can be completely evaluated at compile time. Dimensions, indexes, and range specifications are not allowed in compiletime expressions.

compiler

The component of Synergy DBL that translates your source files containing Synergy DBL statements into object files containing systemlevel information.

compiler directive

A statement that instructs the Synergy compiler and is evaluated only when a program is compiled. Compiler directives are not included in the resulting executable program.

compiler listing

A display of your program that is generated when you compile. The compiler listing may or may not include one or more compiler listing tables, depending on which compiler options you set.

compiler listing table

A table that is generated in the compiler listing at the end of each routine if you’ve set the appropriate compiler options.

compiler option

A switch on the compile command that tells the compiler how to behave or interpret data.

complex array

See real array.

compound statement

A single logical unit that consists of a BEGIN statement, an END statement, and all the Synergy DBL statements that come between them.

condition

A set of circumstances that is either true or false.

conditional

An expression whose value is interpreted as a true or false value.

conditional block

A group of statements that begin with the .IFDEF or .IFNDEF directive, end with the .ENDC directive, and may contain the .ELSE directive. A conditional block specifies that compilation depends on either the declaration or nondeclaration of a variable or replacement identifier.

constant

A value that doesn’t change while the program is being executed, such as a literal, a literal field, or a .DEFINE identifier. Also called a literal.

constraint

Additional contextual information that is added to a type parameter of a generic type.

constructed type

A generic type that has one or more type arguments.

constructor

A class member function that is called when an instance of the class is created.

container

A window that can contain one or more controls or subcontainers. An ActiveX control container can contain one or more ActiveX controls. A Toolkit ActiveX container window is a Synergy window that can contain one or more ActiveX control containers. “Contain” means the containee is visually placed completely within the container, and the destruction of the container automatically causes the destruction of the containee.

continuation line

The second and all subsequent physical lines for a single logical line. A continuation line begins with an ampersand (&).

control statement

A Synergy DBL statement that changes the order of execution by transferring program control to another statement, transferring control to another program or subroutine, ending processing of the current program, or returning control to a referencing routine.

CRC

Cyclic redundancy check, or an integer derived from a record in order to detect changes. Any change to the data generates a different CRC.

current record

The last record that was read by READ or READS or positioned to by FIND on an ISAM channel. There is no current record after a ­DELETE or WRITE.

D

daemon

A program running on an operating system that is not invoked explicitly but that sits dormant, waiting for a specific condition to occur.

data division

The part of a Synergy program in which you define the data structures that will be used in the program.

data manipulation statement

A Synergy DBL statement that directly changes your data.

data reference operation

Either a casting function or a mechanism that obtains various data characteristics.

data type

Data representation such as alpha, decimal, implieddecimal, integer, String, class, structure, etc.

debugger

A productivity tool that enables programs to run in a special debugging mode so you can test, detect, locate, and remove any mistakes.

decimal data

A signed whole number that consists of any of the characters 0 through 9.

decimal expression

An expression whose result is a decimal value.

declarative statement

A statement that appears in the routine’s data division and defines a variable that the routine can access.

default value

The value of a field before any procedure division statements are executed, where the field does not have an initial value.

delegate

A typesafe function pointer used by the .NET Framework. It specifies a method to call and optionally an object to call the method on.

delimiter

A character that separates adjacent language elements in a statement.

derived class

A class that extends another class, inheriting all of its members. A derived class is a child of its immediate parent.

descriptor

A memory block that contains information about the associated variable or literal (such as the size, type, and position of the data) and the default way of passing arguments to external subroutines.

destructive receive

When the RECV statement receives and deletes a message from the message manager.

destructor

A class member function that is called before an instance of the class is destroyed.

device

A piece of equipment within or attached to a computer.

dimension

The defined size of an array. For example, the dimension of an array with 2 rows and 3 columns is (2,3), or 2 by 3. In the .NET Framework, a dimension is referred to as a rank.

display area

A subset of the total area of a window that is physically displayed on the screen.

display attribute

A characteristic of a window or an associated element that affects its appearance, such as color, boldface, blinking, reverse video, and underline.

DLL

Short for Dynamic Link Library, which is a library file containing API routines. You can access these libraries at runtime without explicitly linking them to an application. Most (thirdparty) Windows applications provide and use their own DLLs.

dynamic array

An array whose upper bounds are determined at runtime. You can specify multiple levels in a dynamic array by declaring a bracket pair for each level.

E

ELB

An abbreviation for executable library. See executable library.

encapsulate

To contain and control the access to functionality or data within a class.

endoffile character

A control character that marks the physical end of file.

enumeration

An enumeration is a data type that consists of a set of named values. You must list (enumerate) each of the values when you create the enumeration. For example, you could create an enumeration called color that consists of the values red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.

environment variable

An abbreviation defined at the operating system level for a device, directory, or path name. Also called a logical assignment.

error literal

A constant that represents a runtime error. Error literals have the format $ERR_string, where string is an error identification mnemonic.

error trapping

The process of “catching” problems so that you can transfer control to another part of the program that will handle the error instead of letting your program die. Errors that aren’t trapped are considered fatal.

event

An action that occurs as a result of another action (for example, a mouse click).

event handler

A method that processes an event.

executable file

A file that can be executed or run. An executable file is normally composed of one or more object files linked together.

executable library

A group of executable subroutines and functions in a single file created by the Synergy linker.

expression

A combination of data elements (operands) and operators that produce a value. An expression must have one or more operands and zero or more operators.

extend

To inherit nonstatic methods, fields, and properties and nested classes from the parent class, as well as any members that the parent inherits from its parent, in recursive fashion.

external function

A userdefined or systemsupplied nonintrinsic function that was defined with the FUNCTION statement. External functions must be declared with the EXTERNAL FUNCTION statement before they can be used.

external subroutine

A userdefined or systemsupplied routine that begins with the SUBROUTINE statement and is executed from another routine with the XCALL statement.

external subroutine library

A collection of external subroutines supplied by Synergy DBL as a standard feature of the language.

F

fatal error

A problem that results in immediate, unconditional termination of your program, unless trapped by the FATAL subroutine.

field

A record component that contains an individual data element. It stores a specific item of data, such as a customer number, first and last name, telephone number, and so forth.

field position indicator

An argument that designates a field should begin at a specific point, or offset, in the record.

field set

A set of row, column, and length “fields” within a Synergy window.

file manipulation statement

A statement that accesses records within a file or group of files.

file type

Whether a file is ISAM, relative, sequential, or stream.

fill characters

A pattern of characters to be loaded into a variable.

filler

An unnamed field that merely occupies record space.

fixedlength record

A record that always has the same number of characters.

flag

An indicator of some special condition or that tells a later part of the program of a condition that occurred earlier.

formal parameter

A parameter that is declared in a subroutine or function.

fractional precision

The number of decimal places in an implieddecimal value.

function

A process that returns a value and can be called explicitly or referenced implicitly.

G

GAC

The .NET global assembly cache.

generic

A class or structure that is not related to a specific type but that can be worked with in a typesafe manner and tailored to the specific data type upon which it acts. A blueprint for a type.

generic type

A type that uses generic type parameters.

generic type argument

The type that is specified to be used in place of the generic type parameter.

generic type parameter

A placeholder for a specific type, used in a generic type definition.

global data

Data that is stored in a named data area rather than the local data area and that can be accessed by any routine in a program.

global data section

A uniquely named data area that contains shared records.

global routine

A subroutine or function that is defined outside a class or namespace.

global structure

A structure that is defined outside a routine, class, or namespace declaration.

GRFA

An abbreviation for Global Record File Address (or global RFA), which is stored as a 10byte variable that includes a 4byte record CRC and a 6byte RFA. See also RFA and CRC.

group

A structure within a structure, as defined by the GROUP statement. Fields or other group declarations can be members of a group.

H

hardware scrolling

A method of moving data on a terminal screen that uses the capabilities of the terminal to do the scrolling instead of repainting all scrolled characters.

highorder bit

The bit that has the highest, unsigned binary significance.

HTTP

Hypertext Transfer Protocol. A set of rules used for network communication in which information is sent via sockets.

HTTPS

An extension to HTTP that enables you to securely transmit sensitive data over the Web.

I

I/O

An abbreviation for input/output.

identifier

A sequence of alphanumeric characters, underscores (_), and dollar signs ($) that signifies a statement, text string, variable, or routine to the compiler.

implieddecimal data

A signed number with a whole number part and decimal places.

implied key of reference

A field in your data record that matches the key defined by the READ or FIND statement. The implied key of reference is used if you don’t explicitly specify a key of reference with the KEYNUM qualifier.

include file

A file containing data definitions that is included by a routine using the .INCLUDE compiler directive. Also called a definition file.

index

An ordered set of key values associated with records in an ISAM file. An index can be in ascending or descending order and can allow duplicate keys.

indexed access

The method of retrieving a specific record within an index file that eliminates having to search the file sequentially. Also called keyed access.

Indexed Sequential Access Method

See ISAM.

indexer

A special property that allows data in a class to be accessed using array syntax.

inherit

To derive functionality and data from another class.

initial value

The value for a field before any procedure division statements are executed. You can set an initial value in your field definition in the data division.

inner class

See nested class.

inplace merge

Combining two or more ordered files without creating a new output file; the files are merged back into the first input file.

input

The data that a computer receives.

input/output statement

A statement that controls the exchange of data between the executing program and the input/output devices (such as printers, terminals, disks, and so forth) attached to the computer system.

instantiate

To create an object of a specific class.

integer data

A byteoriented, binary representation of a signed whole number.

interface

A contract that a class agrees to abide by. An interface defines the properties, methods, and events that a class must use without providing any code itself. A class that implements an interface agrees to implement every aspect of that interface exactly as it is defined.

internal subroutine

A routine that begins with a label and whose code is part of the calling routine.

interprogram communication statement

A statement that passes and obtains data from interactive processes.

interrupt character

A keyboard character sequence that interrupts the normal flow of program execution.

intrinsic function

A Synergex builtin function that generates a value.

ISAM

An abbreviation for Indexed Sequential Access Method, which is a way of organizing data in which an index is created to show where data records are stored.

ISAM file

A data file in btree format that is organized to support both indexed access for optimal, keyed record access and efficient sequential record processing in any key order. See ISAM.

iteration

A single repetition of a loop.

K

key

A field, fields, or parts of a field used to locate records in a file and define a sequential order in which to process that file.

key of reference

A key that defines which ISAM file index is used in sequential operations. It is established by the READ or FIND statement, or by the POSRFA subroutine. Records accessed by READS are retrieved in the order of the key of reference.

key value

A value that points to a specific data record as defined by the key. The index file contains these key values in sequential order as defined by the key.

keyword

A word that has predefined meaning in the Synergy DBL and that identifies a statement, compiler directive, or language feature.

keyed access

The method of retrieving a specific record within an indexed file that eliminates having to search the file sequentially. Also called indexed access.

L

lambda function

An inline function that maintains state and that can access the variables available to the method in which it is declared.

leaf block

A block in the final level of an ISAM file’s index that is read last on any keyed access. A leaf block consists of sorted key values with a onetoone correspondence between a leaf entry and a data record.

label

A symbolic name for a statement in the procedure division. A label enables you to transfer program control to the referenced statement.

librarian

The component of Synergy DBL that creates and maintains object libraries.

linker

The component of Synergy DBL that combines the object files created by the compiler to produce executable code files.

linking

The process that combines one or more routines into an executable program or library.

listing counter

A tally of the number of times you use .LIST (the counter is incremented) and .NOLIST (the counter is decremented). Listing is enabled while the counter is greater than or equal to zero.

literal

A value that doesn’t change while the program is being executed, such as literal, a literal field, or a .DEFINE identifier. Also called a constant.

local data

Data that can only be accessed by the defining routine, such as global common data and subroutine arguments.

local routine structure

A structure that is defined inside a local routine.

lock

To keep a file or record from being modified by another channel or program.

logical assignment

An abbreviation defined at the operating system level for a device, directory, or path name. Also called an environment variable.

logical line

One or more physical lines of code that function as a single Synergy DBL instruction. The second and all subsequent physical lines must begin with a continuation character (&).

logical screen

The characters and attributes associated with a window that are stored in memory.

loop

A sequence of instructions that is executed repeatedly until a specified condition is met.

loose field

A field defined in a class outside of a record.

M

mailbox

A logical device in which a character stream can be written to and read from in firstinfirstout order.

main routine

The entry point into a program.

member

A general term for any item that can be declared within another declaration, such as a namespace or class.

memory handle

A unique reference for protected Synergy DBL mappable memory.

memory usage summary table

An optional compiler listing that lists the amount of memory required by each program component.

message manager

One of two facilities provided by Synergy DBL to process messages sent between programs.

message pool

A memory area used by the Synergy message manager that contains all Synergy DBL messages.

method

A routine within a class declaration that performs an operation that also has access to all fields of that class and any inherited classes.

method signature

The fully qualified name of a method which includes the namespace name(s), class name(s), method name, argument types, and return type in the form namespace.class.method(type[, type, ...])rettype.

modular programming

A method of programming that divides a large program into smaller routines.

module descriptor block

A block that contains descriptive information about a routine, such as the routine name, the program section offsets, and the program section lengths.

module identifier string

A string defined by the .IDENT compiler directive that is to be included in a module’s object records. Refer to your OpenVMS manual for more information about “module identifier” strings.

“module version” string

A string defined by the .IDENT compiler directive.

N

nway merge

Combining two or more ordered files into a separate output file.

namespace

A unique name that represents a grouping of classes, structures, subroutines, and functions (and interfaces and delegates in .NET) that is used to prevent naming collisions between them. A default namespace is the namespace to which subroutines and functions that have no declared namespace are added.

native integer

The storage format for integer data on a given CPU.

nested class

A class declared entirely within another class declaration.

.NET Native

A build feature for Universal Windows Platform (UWP) that generates native binaries from managed IL binaries. If you build a UWP app with .NET Native, the build takes longer, but the final result is a native UWP binary, which performs better than a managed IL binary and has no dependencies on .NET runtimes installed on desktop systems. If you build without .NET Native, the result is a managed IL binary, which can be useful for development and initial testing because it takes less time to compile.

nonCLS structure

A structure defined without the CLS modifier, which means it is a Synergy structure (as opposed to a .NET value type structure).

noninteractive runtime

A reducedsize runtime that starts up faster than the dbr runtime because the functions required to control an application’s display and debugging capabilities are minimized. Noninteractive Synergy runtimes are dbs, dbssvc, and dbspriv.

null

An empty value or lack of information. (Note that a zero and a blank are not null, because they convey information.)

nullable type

A type that represents all values of an underlying data type plus an additional null value. A nullable type maps to the System.Nullable structure.

numeric

The digits 0 through 9.

numeric data type

A term that encompasses the data types decimal, implieddecimal, ­integer, packed, and impliedpacked.

numeric expression

An expression whose result is a numeric value.

O

object

An instance of a class.

object code

The systemspecific information that the compiler generates.

object file

A file that is created when a source file is compiled. An object file contains one or more object modules.

object handle

A variable that is used to operate on a class or its members.

object library

A group of subroutine object modules in a single file created with the Synergy librarian. Object libraries are linked into an executable file with the Synergy linker.

object module

A compiled routine.

occlusion

An overlapping that occurs when one window is placed over all or part of another window.

offset

A specific point in a record where a field begins.

OLB

An abbreviation for object library. See object library.

OpenSSL

A thirdparty library that provides SSL support to the Synergy HTTP document transport API.

operand

The data element in an expression.

operator

The part of an expression that performs the action on the operands. Synergy DBL has the following operators: unary plus and minus, arithmetic, assignment, rounding, relational, string relational, Boolean, bitwise, and concatenation and reduction.

outer class

The class in which a nested class is nested.

overlay

A technique that allows two or more fields to occupy the same data location.

overlay indicator

The symbol “,X”, which indicates that you are defining an alternate layout for a record.

overlay window

A window that occupies the same area as another window. The data, window size, and data attributes of the window are the same as those of the overlaid window.

overload

To give another method in the same class the same name but different parameters.

override

To provide a method declaration in an inherited class that supersedes the method declaration with the same signature in the parent class.

P

paint character

The character that replaces a deleted character on the screen.

palette

A set of colors available to Synergy programs.

parameter

A variable to which a value may be assigned.

parent class

A class higher in the class inheritance hierarchy.

parent process

The process that has created a child process or subprocess. Control returns to the parent process once the child process is complete.

parse

To separate statements into syntactic units.

path

The file hierarchy through which control passes to locate a particular file, or a way to reference a field within a group. The latter is referred to as a “variable path” in this documentation.

physical line

An actual line of code in your program that contains no line breaks or carriage returns.

physical screen

The CRT on which the visible portions of placed windows are displayed. Before you can see changes to the physical screen, you must update the screen.

PID

A unique project and programmer number combination assigned by the OpenVMS operating system.

placement order

The order in which windows are placed on the screen, with the last window placed being the highest in the order. Windows higher in the placement order occlude those that are lower in the placement order.

pointer

An address or other indication of a data location.

portable integer

An integer that is stored in a constant, systemindependent format.

procedure division

The part of your routine that contains the executable statements and defines the processing algorithms.

processing area

A subset of the total window area that can be modified.

prefetch

To read ahead records or instructions that are expected to be processed into a higherspeed storage or memory buffer, thus speeding up program execution.

profiler

A performance analysis tool included with Synergy DBL.

property

A group of specialized methods that are accessed as if they were a field.

prototype

A member signature without an implementation.

pseudo array

A singledimension array of type a, d, d., i1, i2, i4, i8, p, or p. (for example, 10a5). We do not recommend using pseudo arrays, because there is no runtime bounds checking even when compiling with qstrict.

Q

quit character

A character that signals the computer to quit program execution.

R

random access

The process of getting data from or placing data into a data location in which access is independent of the order of storage.

ranged variable

A variable followed by a ranging expression, either in absolute or relative form.

ranging expression

An expression in parentheses after a variable reference that specifies starting and ending character positions relative to the beginning of the variable’s data space.

rank

The number of possible dimensions in an array. For example, an array declared as arr, [5,3]a10 has rank 2, because there are two dimensions (5 and 3).

real array

A single or multidimensional array of type a, d, d., i1, i2, i4, i8, p, or p. that is specified in square brackets immediately preceding the data type (for example, [10]a5).

receive option flag

An indicator set by the RCFLG subroutine that controls the way a RECV statement searches for local, group, and global message queues.

record

A data area containing one or more consecutive fields on a related subject, such as a customer record or a file layout.

record terminator

A character or character sequence that signals the end of a record.

recursion

The ability to XCALL a routine that is currently activated.

reentrant

The property that enables a routine to be called recursively.

region

A block of code delineated by the .REGION.ENDREGION compiler directives that Visual Studio in .NET or Workbench will collapse and mark with a small box containing a plus sign. The classes, fields, groups, etc., defined within that region are not visible until the plus sign is clicked to expand the region.

relational operator

An operator that compares two operands (equal to, not equal to, greater than, less than, greater than or equal to, or less than or equal to).

relative file

A file that consists of a series of fixedlength records referenced by their relative position within the file.

relative ranging

A form of a ranging expression that indicates the starting or ending character position and length of a charactersequence range using two arithmetic expressions separated by a colon.

replacement identifier

A symbol that defines a text string that is to be substituted for the symbol throughout the program. The symbol is created with the .DEFINE statement.

replacement text

The character sequence that is substituted for a .DEFINE identifier.

RFA

An abbreviation for Record File Address, which uniquely identifies a record within a file of any type of organization. An RFA is stored as an a6 variable. The RFA enables the program to bypass the index and reaccess the record directly.

RFA use counter

A byte that is incremented each time an RFA position is restored by a STORE or WRITE statement.

root block

The block of an ISAM file’s index that is read first on any keyed access. The root block contains entries that point to separator blocks.

rounding operator

The operator that truncates the left operand by the number of digits specified by the right operand in an expression.

routine

A main routine, subroutine, function, or method.

runtime

The main component of Synergy DBL that supports the actions requested by your Synergy programs during execution.

runtime option flag

An indicator set by the DFLAG or FLAGS subroutine that controls the way the runtime acts in response to the execution of Synergy DBL ­statements.

S

scope

The smallest of one of the following groupings that has the identifier declared as one of its members, not including inherited members: namespace, class, structure, record, group, CATCH block, or local data block.

screen function command

A command that is used with the DISPLAY statement to control terminalindependent screen functions (such as cursor position).

screen update

The act of copying the changes stored in the logical screen to the physical screen.

search list logical

A logical assignment that specifies one or more directory paths to search when looking for a file.

search path

A file specification that includes a search list logical.

separator block

A block of an ISAM file’s index that exists as a pathway to the leaf blocks. A separator block consists of entries that contain partial key values that point to other separator blocks or leaf blocks.

sequential access

The process of finding a record by searching a file serially.

sequential file

A file that contains records delimited by an operatingsystemspecific record terminator. A sequential file can only be accessed in record mode.

shared data

Data that can be accessed by more that one routine.

shared image

A library of executable routines to which you can link statically or dynamically at runtime. Shared images may contain data references, as well as procedure references.

shell

The UNIX operating system command processor.

sign extension

Extending an integer value by replicating the highorder bit throughout additional bytes.

simple array

See pseudo array.

simple variable

A variable that consists of the name of a data area including any path specifications. If the variable is defined as an array, it refers to the first element of the array.

source file

A text file that contains Synergy code that has not been compiled or linked.

spooling

The process by which input and output devices appear to be working simultaneously, when in fact the system is inputting or outputting data using buffers, or temporarily storing data on disk or tape files until another part of the system is ready to print or otherwise process it.

SSL

Secure Socket Layer. The most common security protocol on the Internet.

stack

A temporary storage area for processing data and instructions.

statement

A single, logical line of instruction in Synergy DBL that declares a data element or directs the procedural execution of a program.

static data

Data accessible to all activations of a routine and guaranteed to keep its current state across activations.

stream file

A file containing data that can be accessed with or without the knowledge of the record structure.

string

The result of an alpha expression that is defined by both its length and content.

string relational operator

An operator (equal to, not equal to, greater than, less than, greater than or equal to, less than or equal to) that compares two alpha operands for the length of both.

structfield

A named reference to a structure and an allocation of memory onto which the structure is mapped.

structure

A layout definition that doesn’t allocate any memory but that can be mapped to memory during program execution or used to define a structfield.

structure control directive

A type of compiler directive that classifies and delimits program structure. It is positiondependent within the program source code. See also compilation control directive.

subclass

See derived class.

subfield

A part of a field that is ranged.

submode

The definition of a file’s record format.

subroutine

A module of code that is only executed when it is called by another routine. A subroutine does not constitute a complete program. It can be either internal or external.

subscripted variable

A variable that refers to an individual element within a list of like elements. The variable name is followed by the subscript value.

superclass

See parent class.

symbol table

An optional crossreference table in a compiler listing that lists all data and constant definitions used in a routine.

symbol table offsets

An optional list in a compiler listing that includes all symbols referenced in the preceding routine with their offsets into the symbol table.

symbolic access table

A table created by the compiler and linker when you use the debug options. It contains controls that enable the debugger to perform sourcelevel displays and look up variables by name.

symbolic string relational operator

The symbol representation of a string relational operator (==, !=, >, <, >=, and <=).

Synergy UI Toolkit Control Panel

A utility that enables you to translate or otherwise modify error text for errors in the Synergy compiler, linker, librarian, and runtime.

Synergy DBMS

Synergy DBL’s proprietary I/O subsystem, which is a collection of Synergy database utilities and other components distributed with Professional Series. Synergy DBMS includes all four file types used by Synergy: ISAM, relative, sequential, and stream.

Synergy DBL daemon

A daemon that processes License Manager and Synergy message manager requests.

system option

A parameter set by the DBLOPT environment variable.

systemsupplied function

An intrinsic or external function that is supplied with Synergy DBL.

systemsupplied subroutine

An external subroutine that is included in the Synergy runtime.

T

termcap file

The terminal data base file on UNIX. It contains a list of the terminal capability codes and their escape sequences.

terminal buffer

An internal storage area that temporarily holds data from the terminal.

terminating character

A character that ends input.

token

A symbol that represents a name or other entity.

traceback

A record of how your program reached a line of code that encountered a nontrappable error (or a trappable error for which no error trapping was established).

trailing blank

A space at the end of an alpha data area.

trappable error

A warning error from which your program can recover unless you fail to trap it.

tree lock

A shortterm lock applied on the index of an ISAM file during operations that access the index. This lock guarantees exclusive index access for the period required by the I/O statement.

truth value

Whether an expression is true or false.

type parameter

A data type placeholder for which an actual type will be substituted when a class member is used.

U

UIC

A unique project and programmer number combination assigned by the UNIX operating system.

unary operator

An operator that acts on a single operand. See operator.

unboxing

The automatic extraction of the type from its related object.

Universal Windows Platform (UWP)

An application architecture that enables applications that target it to run as Metrostyle apps on any system or device with Windows 10 or Windows 10 Mobile. UWP is built into these operating systems and is a further development of the Windows Runtime (WinRT) model.

UNIX “what” string

A string defined by the .IDENT compiler directive. “What” strings are available on UNIX systems that have Source Code Control System (SCCS). Refer to your UNIX manual for more information about “what” strings.

URI

Uniform Resource Indicator. The address technology from which URLs are created.

user data set

A onedimensional alpha array that is associated with a window and maintained within the window data area by the windowing system. You can completely control its parameters and contents.

userdefined function

A function that is not supplied by Synergy DBL and that begins with the FUNCTION statement.

userdefined subroutine

A subroutine that is not supplied by Synergy DBL and that begins with the SUBROUTINE statement.

V

value type

A structure in the .NET Framework System namespace. A value type accesses data directly.

variable

An identifier that refers to a field or record.

variablelength record

A record in a file in which records are not equivalent in length.

variable path

A way to reference a field or variable within a group.

VariantDesc

The base type in the Synergy .NET runtime for traditional Synergy data types. A variable defined as VariantDesc can be set to any descriptor type: IntegerDesc, DecimalDesc, AlphaDesc, etc.

virtual

A method qualifier that allows the method to be overridden. Abstract and override methods imply virtual.

W

watchpoint

A setting in the debugger. When you set a watchpoint for a variable, the debugger breaks on the line that changes the variable.

wildcard

A character that enables an operating system or program to perform functions on multiple files with related names, without your having to specify each file by its full name. Wildcard characters are “?” (or “%” on OpenVMS) and “*”.

window

A portion of the screen committed to a specific purpose, such as a menu, a bordered display, or a popup help message. Windows can help you enhance your user interface.

window area

The size of the entire window.

windowing system

A group of external subroutines (referred to as the Synergy windowing API) that control the creation, display, and maintenance of windows and their attributes.

working storage

A section of memory allocated to hold immediate results. Examples of working variables held in working storage are loopcontrol variables, internal processing flags, and variables to hold transitional results.

wrap

To automatically move a word to the beginning of the next line if it doesn’t fit on the current line.

X

XCALL

An external subroutine or the Synergy DBL statement that calls an external subroutine.

Z

zoned numeric

A traditional DIBOL data storage mechanism.